Another essential cognitive process controlled by DHA is regulating the brain’s concentration of phosphatidylserine (PS), which is also vital for cell survival. 45 Diets low in DHA reduce brain PS, which affects cell signaling for survival through enzymes including Na+/K+ ATPase and calcium uptake. Calcium is one of the most common and versatile cell-signaling systems. DHA, but not EPA, has been shown to be a major regulator of calcium oscillations (waves within cells), 46 which regulate a vast array of cellular functions, including neurotransmitter release, mitochondrial function, gene activation, oxidative stress, and, in the developing brain, neuron migration and maturation. 47 Low DHA levels are also known to lower brain and cellular growth factors, such as brain-derived growth factor.