The issue that vexed Kant was central to what 20th-century scholars called "the philosophy of mind ". The flowering of the natural sciences had led to an understanding of how data reaches the brain. Sunlight falling on an object is reflected from its surface in a way that maps the surface features (color, texture, etc.). The reflected light reaches the human eye, passes through the cornea, is focused by the lens onto the retina where it forms an image similar to that formed by light passing through a pinhole into a camera obscura . The retinal cells send impulses through the optic nerve and then they form a mapping in the brain of the visual features of the object. The interior mapping is not the exterior object, and our belief that there is a meaningful relationship between the object and the mapping in the brain depends on a chain of reasoning that is not fully grounded. But the uncertainty aroused by these considerations, by optical illusions, misperceptions, delusions, etc., are not the end of the problems.
- “Hell, Vagueness, and Justice: A Reply to Sider,” (co-authored with Ted Poston), Faith and Philosophy, 25:3, 322-328, July 2008.
- “Epistemological Considerations Concerning Skeptical Theism,” Faith and Philosophy, 25:2, 172-176, April 2008.
- “A User’s Guide to Design Arguments,” (co-authored with Ted Poston) Religious Studies (Cambridge University Press, 2008), 44:1, 99-110.
- “Divine Hiddenness and the Nature of Belief,” (co-authored with Ted Poston) Religious Studies (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 43:2, 183-198.
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